Invertible Matrix Theorem

## Invertible Matrix Theorem

Let $A$ be a square $n \times n$ matrix. Then the following statements are equivalent. That is, for a given $A$, the statements are either all true or all false.

  1. $A$ is an invertible matrix.
  2. $A$ is row equivalent to the $n \times n$ identity matrix.
  3. $A$ has $n$ pivot position.
  4. The equation $A \vec{x} = \vec{0}$ has only the trivial solution.
  5. The columns of $A$ form a linearly independent set.
  6. The linear transformation $\vec{x}$ to $A \vec{x}$ is one-to-one.
  7. The equation $A \vec{x} = \vec{b}$ has at least one solution for each $\vec{b}$ in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$.
  8. The columns of $A$ span $\mathbb{R}^{n}$.
  9. The linear transformation $\vec{x}$ to $A \vec{x}$ maps $\mathbb{R}^{n}$ onto $\mathbb{R}^{n}$.
  10. There is an $n \times n$ matrix $C$ such that $CA = I$.
  11. There is an $n \times n$ matrix $D$ such that $AD = I$.
  12. $A^{T}$ is an invertible matrix.
  13. The columns of $A$ form a basis of $\mathbb{R}^{n}$.
  14. $\mathrm{Col} \ A = \mathbb{R}^{n}$.
  15. $\mathrm{dim} \ \mathrm{Col} \ A = n$.
  16. $\mathrm{rank} \ A = n$.
  17. $\mathrm{Nul} \ A = \left \{ \vec{0} \right \}$.
  18. $\mathrm{dim} \ \mathrm{Nul} \ A = 0$.
  19. The number $0$ is not an eigenvalue of $A$.
  20. The determinant of $A$ is not zero; $\mathrm{det} \ A \neq 0$.
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